Seabird Ecology Group, University of Liverpool

Our research interests are diverse and varied, and include previous and ongoing projects on behaviour, life-history strategies, evolution and physiology. Many of our projects are applied, with a strong conservation focus.

We work all over the world with a diversity of collaborators from universities, governments and NGOs. Take a look at our individual members for further details and follow us on Twitter for most recent updates on project outputs and opportunities. 

Recent Publications


Bennett, S., Wanless, S., Harris, M. P., Newell, M. A., Searle, K., Green, J. A., & Daunt, F., 2022. Site‐dependent regulation of breeding success: evidence for the buffer effect in the common guillemot, a colonially‐breeding seabird. Journal of Animal Ecology.


Buckingham, L., Bogdanova, M.I., Green, J.A., Dunn, R.E., Wanless, S., Bennett, S., Bevan, R.M., Call, A., Canham, M., Corse, C.J., Harris, M.P., Heward, C.J., Jardine, D.C., Lennon, J., Parnaby, D., Redfern, C.P.F., Scott, L., Swann, R.L., Ward, R.M., Weston, E.D., Furness, R.W., Daunt, F., 2022. Interspecific variation in non-breeding aggregation: a multi-colony tracking study of two sympatric seabirds. Marine Ecology Progress Series.


Dunn, R.E., Buckingham, L., Bogdanova, M.I., Daunt, F. and Newell, M.A., 2021. Two observations of acorn barnacles attached to GLS loggers on seabirds in the North Atlantic. Seabird.

Green, R.M.W., Burton, N.H.K. & Cook, A.S.C.P. 2021. Migratory movements of British and Irish Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna: a review of ringing data and a pilot tracking study to inform potential interactions with offshore wind farms in the North SeaRinging & Migration.

Pollock, C.J., Lane, J.V., Buckingham, L., Garthe, S., Jeavons, R., Furness, R.W. and Hamer, K.C., 2021. Risks to different populations and age classes of gannets from impacts of offshore wind farms in the southern North Sea. Marine Environmental Research.

Green, R.E., Taggart, M.A., Pain, D.J., Clark, N.A., Clewley, L., Cromie, R., Elliot, B., Green, R.M.W., Huntley, B., Huntley, J. and Leslie, R., 2021. Effect of a joint policy statement by nine UK shooting and rural organisations on the use of lead shotgun ammunition for hunting common pheasants Phasianus colchicus in Britain. Conservation Evidence Journal.

Trevail, AM, Green, JA, Bolton, M, Daunt, F, Harris, SM, Miller, PI, Newton, S, Owen, E, Polton, JA, Robertson, G, Sharples, J and Patrick, SC. Environmental heterogeneity promotes individual specialism in habitat selection in a widely distributed seabird. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Duckworth, J, O'Brien, S, Petersen, IK, Petersen, A, Benediktsson, G, Johnson, L, Lehikoinen, P, Okill, D, Väisänen, R, Williams, J, Williams, S, Daunt, F and Green, JA. Spatial and temporal variation in foraging of breeding red-throated divers. Journal of Avian Biology.


Austin RE, De Pascalis F, Votier SC, Haakonsson J, Arnould JPY, Ebanks-Petrie G, Newton J, Harvey J & Green JA. Interspecific and infraspecific foraging differentiation in neighbouring tropical seabirds. Movement Ecology,


Clark, BL, Cox, SL, Atkins, KM, Bearhop, S, Bicknell, AW, Bodey, TW, Patrick, SC ... & Votier, S. C. Sexual segregation of gannet foraging over 11 years: movements vary but isotopic differences remain stable. Marine Ecology Progress Series

Beal, M, Dias, MP., Phillips, RA., Oppel, S, Hazin, C, Pearmain, EJ, Clay, TA... & Catry, P. Global political responsibility for the conservation of albatrosses and large petrels. Science Advances.  



Hämäläinen, AM, Guenther, A, Patrick, SC, & Schuett, W. Environmental effects on the covariation among pace‐of‐life traits. Ethology

Harris, SM, Descamps, S, Sneddon, LU, Cairo, M, Bertrand, P, & Patrick, SC. Personality-specific carry-over effects on breeding. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 

Grémillet, D, Péron, C, Lescroel, A, Fort, J, Patrick, SC, Besnard, A, & Provost, P. No way home: collapse in northern gannet survival rates point to critical marine ecosystem perturbation. Marine Biology.


Merrall, ES, & Evans, KL. Anthropogenic noise reduces avian feeding efficiency and increases vigilance along an urban‐rural gradient regardless of species' tolerances to urbanisation. Journal of Avian Biology.

Hämäläinen, A, Guenther, A, Patrick, SC, & Schuett, W. Environmental effects on the covariation among pace-of-life traits. EcoEvoRxiv


Patrick SC, Corbeau, A, Réale D, & Weimerskirch H. Coordination in parental effort decreases with age in a long‐lived seabird. Oikos


Frankish CK, Phillips RA, Clay TA, Somveille M, Manica A. Environmental drivers of movement in a threatened seabird: insights from a mechanistic model and implications for conservation. Diversity and Distributions

Carravieri A, Burthe SJ, de la Vega C, Yonehara Y, Daunt F, Newell MA, Jeffreys RM, Lawlor AJ, Hunt A, Shore RF, Pereira G, Green JA. Interactions between Environmental Contaminants and Gastrointestinal Parasites: Novel Insights from an Integrative Approach in a Marine Predator. Environmental Science & Technology.

Clay TA, Joo R, Weimerskirch H, Phillips RA, den Ouden O, Basille M, Clusella-Trullas S, Assink JD, Patrick SP. Sex‐specific effects of wind on the flight decisions of a sexually dimorphic soaring bird. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Jones TB, Green JA, Patrick SC, Evans JC, Wells MR, Rodríguez‐Malagón, MA, Arnould JPY. Consistent sociality but flexible social associations across temporal and spatial foraging contexts in a colonial breeder. Ecology Letters.

Handley J, Pearmain EJP, Oppel S, Carneiro APB, Hazin C, Phillips RA, Ratcliffe N, Staniland I, Clay TA, Hall J, Scheffer A, Fedak M, Boehme L, Pütz K, Belchier M, Boyd I, Trathan P, Dias M. Evaluating the effectiveness of a large multi-use MPA in protecting key biodiversity areas for marine predators. Diversity and Distributions


Dunn RE, Wanless S, Daunt F, Harris MP, Green JA. A year in the life of a North Atlantic seabird: behavioural and energetic adjustments during the annual cycle. Scientific Reports 10, 5993.

Zeyl JN, den Ouden O, Koppl C, Assink J, Christensen-Dalsgaard J, Patrick SC, Clusella-Trullas S. Infrasonic hearing in birds: a review of audiometry and hypothesized structure-function relationships. Biological Reviews.

Duckworth J, O'Brien S, Vaisanen R, Lehikoinen P, Petersen IK, Daunt F, Green JA. First biologging record of a foraging Red-Throated Loon Gavia stellata shows shallow and efficient diving in freshwater environments. Marine Ornithology. 48: 17-22.

Carneiro APB, Pearmain EJ, Oppel S, Clay TA et al. (42 other authors). A framework for mapping the distribution of Southern Ocean seabirds across life-history stages, by integrating tracking, demography and phenology. Journal of Applied Ecology

Weimerskirch H, Collet J, Corbeau A, Pajot A, Hoarau F, Marteau C, Filippi D, Patrick SC. Ocean sentinel albatrosses locate illegal vessels and provide the first estimate of the extent of nondeclared fishing. PNAS.

Börger L, Bijleveld AI, Fayet AL, Machovsky-Capuska GE, Patrick SC, Street GM, Vander Wal E. Biologging Special Feature. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Harris SM, Descamps S, Sneddon LU, Bertrand P, Chastel O, Patrick SC. Personality predicts foraging site fidelity and trip repeatability in a marine predator. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Collins PM, Green JA, Elliott KH, Shaw PJA, Chivers L, Hatch SA, Halsey LG. Coping with the commute: Behavioural responses to wind conditions in a foraging seabird. Journal of Avian Biology.


Busdieker KM, Patrick SC, Trevail AM, Descamps S. Prey density affects predator foraging strategy in an Antarctic ecosystem. Ecology and Evolution

Carravieri A, Bustamante P, Labadie P, Budzinski H, Chastel O, Cherel Y. Trace elements and persistent organic pollutants in chicks of 13 seabird species from Antarctica to the subtropics. Environment International134: 105225.

Borrmann RM, Phillips RA, Clay TA, Garthe S. High foraging site fidelity and spatial segregation among individual great black-backed gulls. Journal of Avian Biology


Austin RE, Wynn RB, Votier SC, Trueman C, McMinn M, Rodriguez A, Suberg L, Maurice L, Newton J, Genovart M, Peron C, Gremillet D, Guillford T. Patterns of at-sea behaviour at a hybrid zone between two threatened seabirds. Scientific Reports. 9:14720.


Joo R, Boone M, Clay TA, Patrick SC, Clusella-Trullas S, Basille M. Navigating through the R packages for movement. Journal of Animal Ecology

Roth AM, Firth JA, Patrick SC, Cole EF, Sheldon BC. Partner's age, not social environment, predicts extrapair paternity in wild great tits (Parus major). Behavioural Ecology.

Williams HJ, Taylor LA, Benhamou S, Bijleveld AI, Clay TA, de Grissac S, Demsar U, English HE, Franconi N, Gomez-Laich A, Griffiths RC, Kay WP, Morales JM, Potts JR, Rogerson KF, Rutz C, Spelt A, Trevail AM, Wilson R, Borger L. Optimising the use of bio-loggers for movement ecology research. Journal of Animal Ecology.

Clay TA, Small C, Tuck GN, Pardo D, Carneiro APB, Wood AG, Croxal JP, Crossin GT, Phillips RA. A comprehensive large‐scale assessment of fisheries bycatch risk to threatened seabird populations. Journal of Applied Ecology

Portugal SJ, White CR, Frappell PB, Green JA, Butler PJ. Impacts of "supermoon" events on the physiology of a wild bird. Ecology and Evolution.

Grecian WJ, Williams HJ, Votier SC, Bearhop S, Cleasby IR, Gremillet D, Hamer KC, Le Nuz M, Lescroel A, Newton J, Patrick SC, Phillips RA, Wakefield ED, Bodey TW. Individual Spatial Consistency and Dietary Flexibility in the Migratory Behavior of Northern Gannets Wintering in the Northeast Atlantic. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.

Hicks O, Green JA, Daunt F, Cunningham EJA, Newell M, Bulter A, Burthe SJ. Sublethal effects of natural parasitism act through maternal, but not paternal, reproductive success in a wild population. Ecology 

Trevail AM, Green JA, Sharples J, Polton, JA, Miller PI, Daunt F, Owen E, Bolton M, Colhoun K, Newton S, Robertson G, Patrick SC. Environmental heterogeneity decreases reproductive success via effects on foraging behaviour. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 286: 20190795.

Dunn RE, Wanless S, Green JA, Harris MP, Daunt F. Effects of body size, sex, parental care and moult strategies on auk diving behaviour outside the breeding season. Journal of Avian Biology.

Austin RE, De Pascalis F, Arnould,JPY, Haakonsson J, Votier SC, Ebanks-Petrie G, Austin T, Morgan G, Bennett G, Green JA. A sex-influenced flexible foraging strategy in a tropical seabird, the magnificent frigatebird. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 611:203-214.

Halsey LG, Green JA, Twiss SD, Arnold W, Burthe SJ, Butler PJ, Cooke SJ, Grémillet D, Ruf T, Hicks O, Minta KJ, Prystay TS, Wascher CAF, Careau V. Flexibility, variability and constraint in energy management patterns across vertebrate taxa revealed by long‐term heart rate measurements. Functional Ecology.


De Pascalis F, Collins PM, Green JA. Utility of time-lapse photography in studies of seabird ecology. PLOS ONE 13(12): e0208995.


Trevail AM, Green JA, Sharples J, Polton J, Arnould J, Patrick SC. Environmental heterogeneity amplifies behavioural response to a temporal cycle. Oikos, DOI: 10.1111/oik.05579 

Jones TB, Patrick SC, Arnould JPY, Rodriquez-Malagon MA,  Wells MR, Green JA. Evidence of sociality in the timing and location of foraging in a colonial seabird. Biology Letters 14: 20180214.

Dunn RE, White CR, Green JA. A model to estimate seabird field metabolic rates. Biology Letters 14(6): 20180190.

Hicks O, Burthe SJ, Daunt F, Newell M, Butler A, Ito M, Sato K, Green JA. The energetic cost of parasitism in a wild population. Proceedings of The Royal Society B 285 20180489

Warwick-Evans V, Atkinson PW, Walkington I, Green JA. Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model. Journal of Applied Ecology 55:503–515

Weimerskirch H, Filippi D p., Collet J, Waugh SM., Patrick SC. Use of radar detectors to track attendance of albatrosses at fishing vessels. Conservation Biology 32:240–245


Collet J, Patrick SC, Weimerskirch H. Behavioral responses to encounter of fishing boats in wandering albatrosses. Ecology and Evolution 7:3335–3347

Collet J, Patrick SC, Weimerskirch H. A comparative analysis of the behavioral response to fishing boats in two albatross species. Behavioral Ecololgy 28:1337–1347

Hicks O, Burthe S, Daunt F, Butler A, Bishop C, Green JA. Validating accelerometry estimates of energy expenditure across behaviours using heart rate data in a free-living seabird. Journal of Experimental Biology:jeb.152710

Howells RJ, Burthe SJ, Green JA, Harris MP, Newell MA, Butler A, Johns, David G., Carnell EJ, Wanless S, Daunt F. From days to decades: short- and long-term variation in environmental conditions affect offspring diet composition of a marine top predator. MEPS 583:227–242

Johnson KV-A, Aplin LM, Cole EF, Farine DR, Firth JA, Patrick SC, Sheldon BC. Male great tits assort by personality during the breeding season. Animal Behaviour 128:21–32

Patrick SC, Pinaud D, Weimerskirch H. Boldness predicts an individual’s position along an exploration–exploitation foraging trade-off. Journal of Animal Ecology 86:1257–1268

Patrick SC, Weimerskirch H. Reproductive success is driven by local site fidelity despite stronger specialisation by individuals for large-scale habitat preference. Journal of Animal Ecology 86:674–682

Votier SC, Fayet AL, Bearhop S, Bodey TW, Clark BL, Grecian J, Guilford T, Hamer KC, Jeglinski JWE, Morgan G, Wakefield E, Patrick SC. Effects of age and reproductive status on individual foraging site fidelity in a long-lived marine predator. Proceedings of The Royal Society B  284:20171068

Wakefield ED, Owen E, Baer J, Carroll MJ, Daunt F, Dodd SG, Green JA, Guilford T, Mavor RA, Miller PI, Newell MA, Newton SF, Robertson GS, Shoji A, Soanes LM, Votier SC, Wanless S, Bolton M. Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species. Ecological Applications 27:2074–2091